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The Comprehensive Guide to Button Battery

Button cell, also known as button battery, refers to a battery that looks like a small button. Generally speaking, it has a larger diameter and thinner thickness (compared to cylindrical batteries such as AA batteries on the market). Button batteries are classified according to their appearance. The corresponding battery categories include cylindrical batteries, square batteries, and special-shaped batteries.

Button Battery

Catalog

What are Button Batteries?

Application of Button Batteries

Type of Button Battery

Comparing Button Batteries

Disposal and Recycling of Button Batteries

What are Button Batteries?

Generally speaking, there are two common types of button batteries: rechargeable and non-rechargeable. Rechargeable include 3.6V rechargeable lithium-ion button batteries (LIR series), 3V rechargeable lithium-ion button batteries (ML or VL series); Rechargeable batteries include 3V lithium-manganese button batteries (CR series) and 1.5V alkaline zinc-manganese button batteries (LR and SR series).

Common and typical models are: 6F22 (9V), 4F22 (6V), 15F20 (22.5V), 10A (9V), 11A (6V), 23A (12V), 25A (9V), 26A (6V), 27A (12 ), 476A (6V), 120H7D (8.4V), 2X625A (3V), etc.

Application of Button Batteries

Due to their small size, button batteries have been widely used in various micro electronic products, with diameters ranging from 4.8mm to 30mm and thicknesses ranging from 1.0mm to 7.7mm; they are generally used as backup power sources for various electronic products, such as Computer motherboards, electronic watches, electronic dictionaries, electronic scales, remote controls, electric toys, pacemakers, electronic hearing aids, counters, cameras, etc.

The more common button batteries include AG3, AG10, and AG13 batteries used in toys and gifts. The battery model on computer motherboards is CR2032, CR2025 used in electronic dictionaries, CR2016 or SR44, SR626 used in electronic watches, etc.

How to Read Button Battery Codes

The English letters in front of the button battery model name indicate the type of battery, the numbers indicate the size, the first two digits indicate the diameter, and the last two digits indicate the thickness.

Lithium Button Battery CR2032 Code and Size

Lithium Button Battery CR2032 Code and Size

Lithium battery size numbers usually use the new numbering method of IEC. The first two digits are the diameter (unit: mm), and the last two digits are the thickness (unit: 0.1 mm). Take the closest number between the two. For example, the approximate dimensions of CR2032 are 20 mm diameter and 3.2 mm thickness.

It is worth noting that the diameter of CR2477, CR2450, CR2430, CR2412 lithium battery is 24.5mm(not 24mm), and the diameter of CR1225 lithium battery is 12.5mm(not 12mm).

Type of Button Battery

Button batteries are also divided into two categories: chemical batteries and physical batteries, with chemical batteries being the most commonly used. They consist of an anode (positive electrode), a cathode (negative electrode) and their electrolyte. Its exterior is made of stainless steel and serves as the positive electrode. Its negative electrode is a stainless steel circular cover. There is a sealing ring insulated between the positive electrode and the negative electrode. The sealing ring is made of nylon. In addition to insulating, the sealing ring can also prevent electrolyte leakage. . There are many types of button batteries, most of which are named after the materials used, such as silver oxide batteries, lithium batteries, alkaline manganese batteries, etc.

The corresponding markings can be seen on the back of the battery:

LR---Alkaline--1.5V
SR---Silver Oxide--1.55V
CR---lithium battery--3V
ZA---zinc air--1.4V

Lithium Button Battery

The common disposable lithium battery is lithium manganese battery (code C), with a nominal voltage of 3 V.

CR2477 Lithium Button Battery

Another less common type of disposable lithium battery is the lithium-fluorocarbon battery (code B), with a nominal voltage of 3 V.

In addition, there is a commonly used secondary lithium battery called ML lithium battery (codenamed ML), with a nominal voltage of 3V.

Common ML lithium Battery Sizes and Equivalents Chart
Model
Nominal voltage(V)
Nominal capacity (mAh)
Nominal current (mA)
Nominal cycle (20%)
Charging voltage(V)
Size(mm)
Weight(g)
Brand
ML621
3.0
5.8
0.015
300
2.8~3.3
6.8
2.1
0.22
FDK
ML1220
3.0
15/18
0.1
500
12
2.0
0.8
FDK
ML2016
3.0
30/25
0.2
500
20
1.6
1.8
FDK
ML2032
3.0
65
0.3
300
20
3.2
3.0

ML2430
3.0
100
0.5
500
24
3.0
4.1
FDK
Common Button Battery Sizes and Equivalents Chart
Battery modelNominal voltageNominal capacityWorking currentContinuous CurrentPulsed currentButton Battery SizesButton Battery Weight
CR30323V550mAh0.2mA3.0mA20mA30.0mm*3.2mm6.8g
CR24773v950mAh0.2mA3.0mA20mA24.5mm*7.7mm9.9g
CR24503v550mAh0.2mA3.0mA20mA24.5mm*5.0mm5.8g
CR24303v270mAh0.2mA3.0mA20mA24.5mm*3.0mm4.3g
CR24123v90mAh0.1mA1.0mA15mA24.5mm*1.2mm2.2g
CR23543v530mAh0.2mA3.0mA20mA23.0mm*5.4mm6.3g
CR23353V300mAh0.2mA3.0mA20mA23.0mm*3.5mm4.2g
CR23303V260mAh0.2mA2.0mA20mA23.0mm*3.0mm3.7g
CR23253V190mAh0.2mA2.0mA20mA23.0mm*2.5mm3.2g
CR23203V130mAh0.2mA2.0mA20mA23.0mm*2.0mm2.7g
CR20323V210mAh0.2mA2.0mA20mA20.0mm*3.2mm3.0g
CR20253V150mAh0.2mA2.0mA20mA20.0mm*2.5mm2.5g
CR20163V75mAh0.1mA1.0mA15mA20.0mm*1.6mm1.7g
CR16323V120mAh0.1mA1.0mA15mA16.0mm*3.2mm1.8g
CR16203 V70mAh0.1mA1.0mA10mA16.0mm*2.0mm1.2g
CR16163V50mAh0.1mA1.0mA10mA16.0mm*1.6mm1.1g
CR12253V50mAh0.1mA1.0mA5mA12.5mm*2.5mm0.9g
CR12163V25mAh0.1mA1.0mA5mA12.0mm*1.6mm0.7
CR10253V30mAh0.1mA1.0mA5mA10.0mm*2.5mm0.6g
CR12203V38mAh0.1mA1.0mA5mA12.0mm*2.0mm0.8g

Silver Oxide Button Battery

silver oxide This button battery has the characteristics of long service life and large capacity. It is widely used and has the largest application volume. This kind of battery uses silver oxide as the positive electrode, metallic zinc powder as the negative electrode, and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide. Electrical energy is generated through the chemical interaction of zinc and silver oxide. The thickness (height) of silver oxide button batteries is available in five specifications: 5.4mm, 4.2mm, 3.6mm, 2.6mm, and 2.1mm, and its diameter is available in four specifications: 11.6mm, 9.5mm, 7.9mm, and 6.8mm. When selecting, one of them should be selected according to the size of its location. Its commonly used models include AG1, AG2, AG3, AG1O, AG13, SR626, etc. The model AG is the Japanese standard and the SR is the international standard model.

Silver Peroxide Button Battery

The structure of this battery is basically the same as that of a silver oxide button battery. The main difference is that the anode (bowel) of the battery is made of silver peroxide.

Alkaline manganese button battery

The battery has large capacity and excellent low-temperature performance. The materials used are cheap and low-priced, and it can meet the requirements for continuous discharge of large currents. Its shortcomings are that the energy density is not enough and the discharge voltage is not stable enough. The positive electrode of the alkaline manganese button battery is manganese dioxide, the negative electrode is zinc, and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide. Its nominal voltage is 1.5V.

Mercury button battery

Also known as mercury button battery, it has the characteristics of being able to be used under high temperature conditions, capable of long-term storage, stable discharge voltage, and good mechanical properties. But its low temperature characteristics are not good. The positive electrode of this battery is mercury, the negative electrode is zinc, and the electrolyte can be potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide. Its nominal voltage is 1.35V.

Lithium manganese button battery label

The nominal voltage of lithium manganese disposable button battery is 3V, the termination voltage is 2V, and the typical operating current is 0.1-0.2mA. It uses manganese dioxide with very stable chemical properties as the positive electrode material and lithium metal with very high specific energy as the negative electrode material. The annual average capacity reduction is no more than 2%, and the storage life is long. The battery adopts a semi-sealed structure and is safe to use. Lithium-manganese disposable button batteries have a wide temperature adaptability range and can work normally under the conditions of -20 to +60 degrees Celsius. It is mostly used in electronic dictionaries, motherboard CMOS batteries, watches, etc.

Secondary lithium button battery

Secondary button battery is also a button battery that can be charged and discharged multiple times; nominal voltage: 3.7V; charging voltage 4.2V.

The corresponding markings can be seen from the back of the battery.

  • LR---Alkaline--1.5V

  • SR---silver oxide--1.55V

  • CR---lithium battery--3V

  • ZA---zinc air--1.4V

  • LIR---Secondary lithium battery--3.7V

Comparing Button Batteries

When choosing a button battery, it's essential to consider longevity, cost, voltage stability, and environmental impact. Here's a comparison of the four main types:

Battery TypeLongevityCostVoltage StabilityEnvironmental ImpactPreferred Usage
AlkalineModerateLowerDecent, declines over timeFewer toxic metals, requires proper disposalLow-cost applications, medium power devices
Silver OxideBetter than AlkalineHigher than AlkalineExcellent, consistent outputContains silver, needs recyclingHigh-end electronics, precision devices
Lithium CoinSuperiorHigherVery stableRisk of fire if damaged, special disposal neededLong-term, stable power needs
Zinc-AirVery HighComparable to specialized batteriesGood, discharges after air exposureFewer harmful metals, needs proper disposalHigh energy density needs, like hearing aids

Each type has its strengths and ideal use scenarios, so the choice depends on the specific requirements of the device and the user's priorities in terms of longevity, cost, stability, and environmental considerations.

  • For cost-effective, general use, alkaline batteries are a good choice.

  • Silver oxide batteries excel in devices requiring consistent voltage.

  • For long-term, stable power, lithium coin batteries are superior.

  • Zinc-air batteries are specialized, perfect for devices like hearing aids requiring high energy density.

Disposal and Recycling of Button Batteries

Proper Disposal of Button Batteries:

  1. Identify Local Regulations: Before disposing of button batteries, it's crucial to check local regulations and guidelines, as these can vary depending on the region.

  2. Separate from Regular Trash: Button batteries should never be disposed of in regular trash due to their toxic contents and potential environmental harm.

  3. Use Designated Drop-off Points: Many areas have designated drop-off points for hazardous waste, including button batteries. These can often be found at recycling centers, electronics stores, or specific collection events.

  4. Battery Recycling Programs: Participate in battery recycling programs, which are sometimes offered by manufacturers or local governments.

Importance of Recycling Button Batteries:

  1. Toxic Materials: Button batteries contain heavy metals like mercury, cadmium, and lead, which can be hazardous to the environment and human health if not disposed of properly.

  2. Preventing Pollution: Proper recycling prevents these toxic materials from contaminating soil and water.

  3. Resource Conservation: Recycling recovers valuable materials like zinc, steel, and manganese, reducing the need for new raw materials.

  4. Energy Efficiency: Using recycled materials often consumes less energy compared to processing new raw materials.

How to Recycle Button Batteries:

  1. Store Safely: Until you can recycle them, store used button batteries in a safe, dry place out of reach of children and pets to prevent accidental ingestion.

  2. Find a Recycling Facility: Use online resources or contact local waste management authorities to locate a recycling facility that accepts button batteries.

  3. Retailer Take-back Programs: Some retailers offer take-back programs for used batteries.

  4. Mail-in Programs: Certain organizations and manufacturers provide mail-in options for recycling button batteries.

Note: Always handle button batteries with care, as they pose a choking hazard and can be dangerous if ingested, especially for children and pets.

References

IEC 60086-2: This part involves the size and nominal voltage of the primary battery. It contains various types of batteries, including lithium batteries.

IEC 60086-3: This part focuses on standard observation conditions and test methods for primary batteries, including performance testing and safety testing.

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Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is Another Name for Button Battery?

The STM32F7 is a series of high-performance microcontrollers produced by STMicroelectronics. These microcontrollers are built around the ARM Cortex-M7 processor and are known for their high processing power, large memory capacity, and advanced peripherals. They are used in a variety of applications, including industrial control, automotive, and consumer electronics.

2. What are The 3 Types of Batteries?

  1. Primary (Single-Use) Batteries: Non-rechargeable batteries like alkaline and lithium batteries.

  2. Secondary (Rechargeable) Batteries: Can be recharged multiple times, examples include lithium-ion and nickel-metal hydride batteries.

  3. Specialty Batteries: Used for specific applications, like silver oxide and zinc-air batteries in hearing aids.

3. What are Types of Batteries?

  • By Composition: Alkaline, Lithium, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal Hydride, Lead-Acid, Silver Oxide, Zinc-Air.

  • By Size/Shape: AA, AAA, C, D, 9V, button cells, coin cells.

  • By Usage: Consumer, automotive, industrial, renewable energy storage.

4. How Long do Button Batteries Last?

  • Depends On: Device usage, battery type (alkaline, lithium, etc.), and battery quality.

  • Average Lifespan: Ranges from a few months to several years. For example, a lithium button cell might last 1-3 years in a watch.

5. What are the numbers on a Button Battery?

The numbers and letters on a coin cell battery represent Battery size, chemistry, and voltage. For example, "CR2032" implies lithium chemistry, 20mm diameter, and 3.2mm height.

6. How to choose Button Battery?

Selecting the right battery depends on the specific requirements of the device and the expected usage patterns.

7. How to Store Button Batteries?

  1. In Original Packaging: To prevent short circuits.

  2. Away from Metal: Store in non-conductive containers.

  3. Controlled Environment: Avoid extreme temperatures and humidity.

  4. Separate Old and New Batteries: Prevents discharge of new batteries.

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